Wave Energy Converter

Wave Energy

Waves are a promising resource of renewable energy. The wave energy converters (WEC) are distinguished into three main categories: oscillating bodies, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices. The oscillating bodies are floats or other bodies which are moved by waves. The oscillating water columns exploit pressure generated by water surface oscillation for moving air through a turbine. Overtopping devices take advantage of the raise of water level caused by waves for storing the water in a reservoir and then exploiting the hydraulic head by an hydraulic turbine. 

Here at Politecnico we are studying a particular wave energy converter composed by two oscillating bodies, the EDS (Energy Double System). It consists of a float and a paddle mounted on the same arm, and it is designed for working in the nearshore region, close to the breaker zone.  


 The float exploits the heave wave force, while the paddle exploits the surge wave force, which can be very high in shallow waters. The advantages of having two different bodies is the versatility of the system to wave characteristics. EDS can be attached to existinD:\Dottorato\Fluids Labs\Sito internetg structures, like piers and docks.

We are testing a scale model of EDS in the wave flume of the Hydraulics laboratory. The model is equipped with two hydraulic PTO (power take off) for measuring the mechanical power absorbed by EDS. Several tests of the EDS model are being performed, in various configurations and with different waves. 

A numerical model of EDS, based on CFD simulation, has been developed and verified on the laboratory data. It is now used to predict the system behavior in many possible configurations.




  • Negri M., Malavasi S., 2018, Wave energy harnessing in shallow water through oscillating bodies, Energies, 11 (10), 2730;
  • Marchesi E., Negri M., Malavasi S. CFD modeling of a two-oscillating-body wave energy converter in shallow water. XXXVI Convegno Nazionale di Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche. Ancona, 12-14 September 2018;
  • Malavasi S., Negri M., 2015. Double system wave energy converter for the breaker zone. Special Issue Ocean energy: Ongoing research in Italy. Rivista EAI, ENEA. DOI: 10.12910/EAI2015-047;
  • M. Negri. S. Malavasi , 2014. “Analisi sperimentale di un WEC per la zona dei frangenti”. Poster. XXXIV Convegno di Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche IDRA14. Bari, Italy (In Italian);
  • M. Negri, F. Clerici, S. Malavasi , 2013. “A breaker-zone wave energy converter”. International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality ICREPQ’ 13. Bilbao, Spain;
  • M. Negri, S. Malavasi, 2013. “Harvesting breaking wave energy”. Poster. Young Coastal and Scientists European Conference YCSEC 2013. Aberdeen, Scotland.

PhD thesis

  • Negri M., 2016. Modeling of a two-oscillating-body wave energy converter for shallow water. PhD Thesis in Environmental and Infrastructure Engineering. Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.

MS thesis

  • Marchesi E., 2018. Modellazione numerica del wave energy converter EDS. MS Thesis in mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy (in Italian);
  • Incampo N., 2015. Analisi numerico-sperimentale del wave energy converter EDS. MS Thesis in mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy (in Italian);
  • Clerici F, 2012. Verifica sperimentale ed ottimizzazione di un sistema di generazione di energia dal moto ondoso sotto costa. MS Thesis in Civil Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy (in Italian);
  • Cometti S, Fioletti S, 2011. Wave energy converter “EDS”: progettazione e messa in opera del modello fisico. MS Thesis in Civil Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy (in Italian). 

Research Projects

  • 2014 "Rendimento teorico di sistemi WEC (wave energy converter)".
  • 2010/12 “High Efficient System for the Wave Energy Production”  REGIONE LOMBARDIA, Call 2009 Energy Efficiency.